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[64], The climate patterns of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres generally mirror each other. The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the world ocean basins. In fact, oceans cover more than 70% of Earth. Name of the five oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic oceans (arranged in a descending order according to their size). [16] Magellan stopped at one uninhabited Pacific island before stopping at Guam in March 1521. [17] Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in 1522. "Pacific/Oceanic History" in, Stillman, Amy Ku‘uleialoha. [59] Salinity also varies latitudinally, reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. Mesopotamia. Today we’ll look at 10 of the largest oceans and seas in the world and learn about what sets them apart. Answer. A sea area of salt water of an ocean, or a large, usually salt water, closed lake (for example, the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea). The Pacific Ocean, the biggest of all, also reaches northward from the Southern Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current. Name the world's largest Largest ocean? It’s so huge, in fact, that its mass makes up half of Earth’s water. The Gulf Stream originates from there. This is close to half of the water on Earth. A petrologic boundary, it separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins. What is the largest ocean basin on earth what is the largest ocean basin on earth the world s largest ocean cleanup has largest ocean cleanup largest ocean cleanup What Is The Largest Ocean Basin On EarthWhat Is The Largest Ocean In World Top 10 SpotmydiveWhat Is The Largest Ocean In World Top 10 SpotmydiveTop… Read More » [18] Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands,[19] the Aru Islands,[20] and Papua New Guinea. Containing almost twice as much as the world's second largest body of water, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean holds more than half of the Earth's open water supply. [21] In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the five. So, the Pacific is the largest and the Arctic is the smallest of all oceans by surface area. Located between the Southern Ocean, Asia, Australia and the Americas, the Pacific Ocean occupies about one-third of the Earth’s surface. The term "Seven Seas" appears as early as 2300 BC in Hymn 8 of the Sumerian Enheduanna to the goddess Inanna. The Mesopotamians were the first in the history of astronomy to keep records of the observed seven moving objects in the heavens – the seven classical planets / Seven Heavens – and they made this connection to their seven seas. In 1520, navigator Ferdinand Magellan and his crew were the first to cross the Pacific in recorded history. [85], From 1946 to 1958, Marshall Islands served as the Pacific Proving Grounds for the United States and was the site of 67 nuclear tests on various atolls. In the Southern hemisphere, because of the stormy and cloudy conditions associated with extratropical cyclones riding the jet stream, it is usual to refer to the Westerlies as the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Shrieking Sixties according to the varying degrees of latitude. [51] The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. An (almost certainly incomplete) census of broken arrows over water", "U.S. discloses accidents involving nuclear weapons", EPIC Pacific Ocean Data Collection Viewable, NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats Realtime Pacific Ocean data, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine–oak forests, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pacific_Ocean&oldid=994131366, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [38] The lowest known point on Earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 m (35,797 ft; 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. It spans the gap between Australia and Asia , and the Americas . [3] Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, located in the western north Pacific, is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,928 meters (35,853 feet). The northern portion, named the Northern Atlantic, drives the “global ocean conveyor” which is responsible for carrying cool waters across the surface of the planet and maintaining a sustainable global temperature. [46] Later, the Diogo Ribeiro map of 1529 was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size. 12 different species of mammals inhabit the Arctic, from polar bears and walruses to a variety of majestic whales. [22], In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. The Pacific Ocean, the largest of the oceans, also reaches northward from the Southern Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. By occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations. Because all the oceans of the world are joined together there’s really only one ocean. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia. Top Answer. Both the Arctic and the Southern Oceans contain frozen water. Their borders are indicated on the world image (above) in varied shades of blue. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. [71], The ocean was first mapped by Abraham Ortelius; he called it Maris Pacifici following Ferdinand Magellan's description of it as "a pacific sea" during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522. [78], Fish are an important economic asset in the Pacific. [1] The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165,200,000 km2 (63,800,000 sq mi)— larger than Earth's entire landmass combined, 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq mi). The main culprits are those using the rivers for disposing of their waste. The Pacific Ocean contains several long seamount chains, formed by hotspot volcanism. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined (148,000,000 square kilometers). Its mean depth is 4,000 meters (13,000 feet). [15] He named it Mar del Sur (literally, "Sea of the South" or "South Sea") because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. The eastern side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active month. The Pacific Ocean meets the Atlantic Ocean south of South America at Cape Horn . Top Answer. [76] The oldest Pacific Ocean floor is only around 180 Ma old, with older crust subducted by now.[77]. [24], Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by European powers, and later Japan and the United States. The third largest ocean on Earth would be the Indian Ocean. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current. Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Oceans are the lifeline of the Earth and humankind because it plays an important role in the Earth's climate and in global warming. While a number of indigenous people inhabit the Arctic, the only people established on the ice of the Southern Ocean are technicians and scientific researchers. separated from the Caribbean Sea by the Yucatan Channel, one of the strongest known currents in the world, flows through the Bering Strait to connect with the Arctic Ocean, resulting in the Bering Sea Fur-Seal Controversy of 1886, an astounding maximum depth of 16,457 feet, the center of various territorial disputes, reaches a staggering depth of 25,216 feet below sea level, the Strait of Gibraltar, which flows between Morocco and Spain, trading center and source of political conflicts throughout history, the smallest and shallowest of all oceans, 12 different species of mammals inhabit the Arctic, are technicians and scientific researchers, not all researchers or countries officially recognize its status, the Atlantic Ocean has the largest drainage area in the world, the African Easterly Jet is a primary force in stirring up and driving hurricanes, its mass makes up half of Earth’s water, reaching astounding depths of 36,201 feet in the Mariana Trench, got its name from explorer Ferdinand Magellan, 10 Largest Health Insurance Companies in the United States, 10 Largest Private Equity Companies in the World. The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world and tenth on our list of top 10 largest seas in the world. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. [51][52], Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. Oceans serve as the planet’s largest habitat and also help to regulate the global climate. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. A large amount of sea ice floats in the Arctic Ocean, helping to regulate Earth’s climate and the temperature of the surrounding waters. It touches the west coast border of the Americas along with east Asia and Australia. [4] The Pacific also contains the deepest point in the Southern Hemisphere, the Horizon Deep in the Tonga Trench, at 10,823 meters (35,509 feet). To Magellan, it seemed much more calm (pacific) than the Atlantic. “Pacific-ing Asian Pacific American History,”, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 06:13. It is situated on Eastern side of America and on the western side of Asia and Australia. The Pacific Ocean meets the Atlantic south of South America at Cape Horn. It’s so huge, in fact, that its mass makes up half of Earth’s water. The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. Spanning an area of 168,723,000 square km, the Pacific Ocean accounts for … The 'Ring of Fire' is defined by a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, island arcs, and volcanic mountain ranges and/or boundaries of several plates. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. It is also the deepest ocean on Earth, reaching astounding depths of 36,201 feet in the Mariana Trench. "North Pacific", "Pacific", and "Pacific region" redirect here. Jones, Eric, Lionel Frost, and Colin White. Located between Cuba and Jamaica, the Cayman Trench or “Bartlett Deep” reaches a staggering depth of 25,216 feet below sea level. It is the biggest one on our planet. [85] The rivers then empty into the ocean, often also bringing chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture. The equator divides the Pacific Ocean into two separate parts – North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific … About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines, Indonesia, and maritime Southeast Asia; west towards Madagascar; southeast towards New Guinea and Melanesia (intermarrying with native Papuans); and east to the islands of Micronesia, Oceania and Polynesia.[11]. [73] The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.[74][75]. The Indian Ocean’s deepest point, the Java Trench of Indonesia, reaches 25,344 ft below sea level. [44] Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns. “The Pacific Asian Region: Myth or Reality?”. The entire area of the Caribbean in combination with its many islands and the Gulf of Mexico is referred to as the Wider Caribbean. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones. "The Pacific Age in World History,", "Recent Literature in Discovery History. For example, catches in the rich fishing grounds of the Okhotsk Sea off the Russian coast have been reduced by at least half since the 1990s as a result of overfishing. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone. [27], The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, such as the First Kamchatka expedition and the Great Northern Expedition, led by the Danish Russian navy officer Vitus Bering. 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