depression rates by religion
The study was published in the peer-reviewedJournal of Affective Disorders. Qualitative studies were excluded, as were those with samples sizes less than 15 unless they were experimental studies. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 206, Number 5, May 2018. In fact, there are several randomized clinical trials already completed that demonstrate benefit using religious or spiritually integrated psychotherapies for depression. Every study referred to in this review is annotated and described in the appendices of two editions of the Handbook of Religion and Health (and for an expanded discussion of this research, which we only briefly summarize here, see the chapters focused on this topic in the Handbook) [17, 18]. MA 02215, USA, 6Department of Psychiatry, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Close. Religious and Spiritual Factors in Depression: Review and Integration of the Research, Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sigmund Freud University, Space here does not allow a full discussion of this complex and controversial issue, so we refer the reader to other sources [11–13]. Evidence-based structured approaches, such as mindful self-compassion (MSC), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), cognitive-based compassion training (CBCT), and related, included elements of combined values following religious belief systems, psychology and coaching. Interventions that utilize the R/S beliefs of patients have been tested in randomized clinical trials and shown to reduce depressive symptoms, and clinical trials are now examining the effects of religious psychotherapy against standard therapies . Spirituality is distinguished from all other things—humanism, values, morals, and mental health—by its connection to that which is sacred, the transcendent….Spirituality includes both a search for the transcendent and the discovery of the transcendent, and so involves traveling along the path that leads from non-consideration to questioning to either staunch non-belief or belief, and if belief, then ultimately to devotion, and finally, surrender . , 95% CI 0.29–0.79). In some of the studies above, it is likely that guilt may have been aroused by R/S involvement and could help to explain some of the association. Although there are many genetic, developmental, and environmental factors contributing to the onset and maintenance of depression, failure to cope with life stress is often a major underlying factor . Another independent review of this research by other investigators has recently confirmed the role that R/S could play in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders as well . The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder is 6.7% in the United States and is 2.0% for severe depression . All analyses were controlled for age, gender, denomination, history of depression, and history of parental depression. Adults who have experienced depression are treated at higher rates than teens. R/S involvement has also been associated with positive emotions, such as greater life satisfaction, well-being, hope, optimism, and meaning and purpose in life, feelings which help to neutralize the negative emotions that underlie depression and suicide. "Losing My Religion: Exploring the Relationship Between a Decline in Faith and a Positive Affect," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer; International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. In some populations, however, it appears that R/S involvement is related to higher rates of depression. This has been a major barrier to R/S persons seeking professional help since time of Freud  and such negative attitudes have not changed much [50, 51]. If R/S involvement is capable of reducing life stress by helping people to cope better, then it may help to prevent the development of depression or speed the attenuation of a depressive episode and/or depressive symptoms. Knowing about this research will help clinicians decide whether religious beliefs of patients are a resource or a liability. One study of suicide in Finland (which has some of the highest suicide rates in the world) found that recent life events were documented in 80% of suicides . Importance of religion/spirituality also reduced the odds of mood disorder in this group by 74% (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.07–0.94). Furthermore, the size of the effect was equivalent to the effect of gender on depression based on similar meta-analyses (and certainly gender is considered a major risk factor for depression). Of the 444 studies, 178 (40%) were rated 7 or higher on the 1-to-10 scale. Four of the six studies above were cross-sectional (preventing causal inferences), although one was prospective (but examined religious affiliation only) and one was a well-designed clinical trial. For example, in one study of 330 consecutively hospitalized patients to the general medicine, cardiology and neurology services of Duke Hospital, when asked an open-ended question about what enabled them to cope with the stress of their illness, 42% spontaneously reported that it was some aspect of religious faith or activity . Besides helping people to cope better with life stressors, R/S involvement may reduce the likelihood that stressors will happen in the first place. Only those in the RCBT condition experienced significantly lower immediate posttreatment depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory or BDI) compared to WLC. Furthermore, at least two randomized clinical trials have found that psychotherapy supplemented with teachings from the Koran and Islamic prayer was effective in treating depression ( , 95% CI 0.06–0.94), any mood disorder by 69% ( Furthermore, R/S has been shown to predict a faster speed of remission of depression in at least three studies of hospitalized patients experiencing the stress of medical illness [38–40]. Higher rates of depression in those lacking a religious affiliation may be due to the absence of social support from a faith community or lack of commitment to a belief system that makes sense of traumatic events and difficult life stressors. In the USA alone it is estimated that depression costs over $65 billion per year . There are certainly many factors that influence the risk of depression besides R/S, including genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. The nonaffiliated may, however, have alternative sources of support from nonreligious communities and secular belief systems that compensate for lack of religious connections. The outcome was the presence of major depression at the 20-year follow-up (10 years after religious measures were assessed). Spirituality, religion and depressive symptoms. Veterans in the religious-spiritual group also had a greater innate sense of gratitude and purpose in life. Finally, there is also evidence that use of R/S therapies for depression does not have to be restricted to R/S therapists. If R/S involvement is related to less depression, less anger and hostility, lower rates of substance abuse, greater social support, and better coping with stress, it should not be surprising that R/S is also related to less suicide. —Albert Einstein. We present here abbreviated versions of the definitions presented in the Handbook of Religion and Health. Future work can look more deeply at when spirituality is associated with depression, and what spiritual practices may be more useful for those seeking meaning outside of formal belief systems. Rather than simply focusing on affiliation, however, we are particularly interested in the relationship between level of R/S involvement (e.g., importance of belief, degree of commitment, and amount of time spent in religious activities) and depression. 17. In either case, this could create a self-selected higher risk spiritual-but-not-religious group. Based on information collected on 238 countries, 13,000 ethno-linguistic peoples, 5,000 cities and 3,000 provinces by the World Christian Database, atheists make up less than 0.01% of the populations of 24 countries, less than 0.1% of the populations in 100 countries on which such data are available, and more than 5% of the population in only 9 countries (Cuba, Latvia, Uruguay, Viet Nam, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Sweden, and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) . Daily decisions that involve choices on how to treat others (generosity, altruism, gratefulness, and forgiveness), lifestyle practices (marital fidelity, delinquency or crime, and school performance), and health behaviors (use of alcohol, use of drugs, and disease prevention activities) may influence the psychosocial or physical stressors that a person has to deal with. The survey data did not estimate specific factors related to depression, so it is only possible to speculate. Depression rates also vary a lot state by state, with Rhode Island having the highest rate of depression at 6.4 percent. Dr. Aaron Kheriaty, MD, is the author, with Msgr. Copyright © 2012 Raphael Bonelli et al. ,000), finding that 92 percent of people in 32 developing countries indicated religion was an important part of daily life . Using this approach, information on depression was compared with religious and spiritual belief, controlling for variables including age, sex and ethnicity. Religious beliefs and practices may help people to cope better with stressful life circumstances, give meaning and hope, and surround depressed persons with a supportive community. The purpose of this review is to summarize quantitative research on the religion-depression relationship, including randomized clinical trials that have examined the effects of religious interventions on depression. Vittengl, JR. A lonely search? In a second report from this study, where the sample was expanded from 114 to 185 participants, investigators examined differences in relationships between R/S and future depression episodes based on level of exposure to negative life events (NLE) . Since the year 2000, at least 22 clinical trials or experimental studies have examined the effects on depressive symptoms, including meditation, religious forgiveness therapy, mantra chanting, spiritual coping therapy, spiritual-focused therapy, spiritual history taking, a spiritual teaching program, 12-step spirituality program, spiritual direction, and a variety of other psychospiritual interventions, of which nearly two-thirds (63%) reported significant benefits . , 95% CI 1.14–3.97) and on any psychiatric disorder (interaction Thus, among those with family problems, those living in Catholic countries in Europe with orthodox beliefs, couples in The Netherlands experiencing bereavement, older widowed European widows without a religious affiliation, young men from Providence Rhode Island, and psychiatric inpatients with substance abuse problems, R/S involvement appears to be associated with a greater risk of depression. 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